Catherine’s Palace at Tsarskoe Selo (Pushkin), St. Petersburg, Russia

Gilded Russian onion domes and façade of Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia -- In Elizabeth's reign it took over 100 kg of gold to decorate the palace exteriors, an excess that was later deplored by Catherine the Great

Gilded Russian onion domes and façade of Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia — In Elizabeth’s reign it took over 100 kg of gold to decorate the palace exteriors, an excess that was later deplored by Catherine the Great

 

“If any proof is needed for the extravagance of Russia’s Imperial rulers, then it can be found in the fact that, in less than two centuries, the Romanov Tsars established not one but two suburban estates – at Tsarskoe Selo and Pushkin – that, in terms of grandeur and excess, outstrip even Versailles.  What is more, at Tsarskoe Selo, the 18th century saw the construction of two vast and truly exceptional palaces, both surrounded by extensive landscaped gardens with diverse and fascinating decorative architecture.  Built for Empress Elizabeth by Bartolomeo Rastrelli, the architect of St. Petersburg’s Winter Palace, the Catherine Palace is undoubtedly Tsarskoe Selo’s top attraction, particularly renowned for the extraordinary Amber Room.  Less well known, and currently much more dilapidated, the Alexander Palace is nonetheless a neoclassical masterpiece, and has a particularly poignant connection with the family of the last Tsar, Nicholas II.  The town of Pushkin, which surrounds the Tsarskoe Selo estates, is St. Petersburg’s most charming suburb.  Renamed in Soviet times to honour Russia’s greatest poet, the town has numerous sights connected to Alexander Sergeevich.” – www.saint-petersburg.com

 

Tsar Peter I (“Peter the Great”) and his second wife, Martha Skavronskaya, mistress between 1702 and 1704, who converted to the Russian Orthodox Church and took the name Catherine (I), Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia

Tsar Peter I (“Peter the Great”) and his second wife, Martha Skavronskaya, mistress between 1702 and 1704, who converted to the Russian Orthodox Church and took the name Catherine (I), Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia

 

“The Catherine Palace is named after Catherine I, the wife of Peter the Great, who ruled Russia for two years after her husband’s death.  Originally a modest two-story building commissioned by Peter for Catherine in 1717, the Catherine Palace owes its awesome grandeur to their daughter, Empress Elizabeth, who chose Tsarskoe Selo as her chief summer residence.  Starting in 1743, the building was reconstructed by four different architects, before Bartholomeo Rastrelli, Chief Architect of the Imperial Court, was instructed to completely redesign the building on a scale to rival Versailles.

“The resultant palace, completed in 1756, is nearly 1km in circumference, with elaborately decorated blue-and-white facades featuring gilded atlantes, caryatids and pilasters designed by German sculptor Johann Franz Dunker, who also worked with Rastrelli on the palace’s original interiors.  In Elizabeth’s reign it took over 100 kg of gold to decorate the palace exteriors, an excess that was deplored by Catherine the Great when she discovered the state and private funds that had been lavished on the building.” – www.saint-petersburg.com

 

Grand Hall in Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia; yes, it is possible to out-Versailles Versailles!

 

“The interiors of the Catherine Palace are no less spectacular.  The so-called Golden Enfilade of state rooms, designed by Rastrelli, is particularly renowned and forms the focus of the palace tour.  Guests enter via the State Staircase which, although it blends effortlessly with the rococo grandeur of Rastrelli’s interiors, in fact dates from the 1860s.  With its ornate banisters and reclining marble cupids, it gives a taste of what is to come.  The Great Hall, also known as the Hall of Light, measures nearly 1,000 square meters, and occupies the full width of the palace so that there are superb views on either side.  The large arched windows provide enough light to relieve the vast quantity of gilded stucco decorating the walls, and the entire ceiling is covered by a monumental fresco entitled The Triumph of Russia.  Using similar techniques but on a smaller scale, the White Dining Room is equally luxurious but, like many of the rooms in the palace, its grandeur is softened by the presence of a beautiful traditional blue-and-white tiled stove in the corner.” – www.saint-petersburg.com

 

Detail of gilding in the Grand Hall, Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia

 

Delft tiles on fireplace in the formal dining room [see next photograph] – “The White Dining Room” -- Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia

Delft tiles on fireplace in the formal dining room [see next photograph] – “The White Dining Room” — Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia

 

The formal dining room – “The White Dining Room” -- Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia

The formal dining room – “The White Dining Room” — Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia

 

Amber Room, Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia, completely reconstructed after World War II following the German Nazis’ theft in 1941 of all of the wall decorations, including the amber mosaic wall panels

Amber Room, Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia, completely reconstructed after World War II following the German Nazis’ theft in 1941 of all of the wall decorations, including the amber mosaic wall panels

 

“To create the [Amber Room — an extraordinary chamber that is one of Saint Petersburg’s most visited sites — ], Rastrelli used the panels of amber mosaic originally destined for an Amber Cabinet at Konigsberg Castle and presented to Peter the Great by Friedrich-Wilhelm I of Prussia, and surrounded them with gilded carving, mirrors, more amber panels created by Florentine and Russian craftsman (comprising a total of 450 kg of amber), and further mosaics of Ural and Caucasus gemstones.  The room was completed in 1770.  Due to the fragility of the materials used, a caretaker was employed constantly to maintain and repair the decorations, and major restoration was undertaken three times in the 19th century.  The room was used to house a substantial collection of amber-work and Chinese porcelain. In 1941, when German troops took Tsarskoe Selo, the Amber Room was dismantled in 36 hours, and shipped to Konigsberg in a tawdry pretense at historical fidelity.  As the Nazi war machine crumbled, the panels were crated up and moved out of danger, but their eventual fate is unknown.  In 1982, the order was given to begin the recreation of the Amber Room, a process that took over 20 years and cost more than $12 million.  Opened in 2003 by President Vladimir Putin and Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder, the restored Amber Room is a truly unique monument, and a testament to the painstaking care of the craftsmen who worked on it.” – www.saint-petersburg.com

 

Detail of wall decorations [see previous photograph], Amber Room, Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia

Detail of wall decorations [see previous photograph], Amber Room, Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia

 

Catherine II of Russia (“Catherine the Great”), born Sophia Augusta Fredericka in Germany, became Empress after she ordered her husband, Tsar Peter III, murdered in a coup, while he was on a holiday; Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia

Catherine II of Russia (“Catherine the Great”), born Sophia Augusta Fredericka in Germany, became Empress after she ordered her husband, Tsar Peter III, murdered in a coup, while he was on a holiday; Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia

 

Family dining room, Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia

Family dining room, Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia

 

Formal garden and woods, Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia

Formal garden and woods, Catherine’s Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia

 

3 thoughts on “Catherine’s Palace at Tsarskoe Selo (Pushkin), St. Petersburg, Russia

    • Definitely some over-the-top palaces in St. Petersburg. Yesterday I read something interesting — in order to get the nobility to build their palaces around St. Petersburg, in the 19th century the Tsar forbade any stone house over something like one or two stories to be built anywhere in Russia EXCEPT for St. Petersburg. It also concentrated the architects, construction talent such as stone masons, and landscapers. Hence the large number of sumptous permanent and summer residences (palaces) built by the oligarchs of that era in and around St. Petersburg!

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